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mardi 25 avril 2017

Bipolar Electrochemistry: From Materials Science to Motion and Beyond

Loget G., Zigah D., Bouffier L., Sojic N., Kuhn A.
Acc. Chem. Res. 2013, 46, 2513-2523.

Bipolar electrochemistry, a phenomenon which generates an asymmetric reactivity onthe surface of conductive objects in a wireless manner, is an important concept for many purposes, from analysis to materials science as well as for the generation of motion. Chemists have known the basic concept for a long time, but it has recently attracted additional attention, especially in the context of micro- and nanoscience. In this Account, we introduce the fundamentals of bipolar electrochemistry and illustrate its recent applications, with a particular focus on the fields of materials science and dynamic systems.

Janus particles, named after the Roman god depicted with two faces, are currently in the heart of many original investigations. These objects exhibit different physicochemical properties on two opposite sides. This makes them a unique class of materials, showing interesting features. They have received increasing attention from the materials science community, since they can be used for a large variety of applications, ranging from sensing to photosplitting of water. So far the great majority of methods developed for the generation of Janus particles breaks the symmetry by using interfaces or surfaces. The consequence is often a low time-space yield, which limits their large scale production. In this context, chemists have successfully used bipolar electrodeposition to break the symmetry. This provides a single-step technique for the bulk production of Janus particles with a high control over the deposit structure and morphology, as well as a significantly improved yield. In this context, researchers have used the bipolar electrodeposition of molecular layers, metals, semiconductors, and insulators at one or both reactive poles of bipolar electrodes to generate a wide range of Janus particles with different size, composition and shape.

In using bipolar electrochemistry as a driving force for generating motion, its intrinsic asymmetric reactivity is again the crucial aspect, as there is no directed motion without symmetry breaking. Controlling the motion of objects at the micro- and nanoscale is of primary importance for many potential applications, ranging from medical diagnosis to nanosurgery, and has generated huge interest in the scientific community in recent years. Several original approaches to design micro- and nanomotors have been explored, with propulsion strategies based on chemical fuelling or on external fields. The first strategy is using the asymmetric particles generated by bipolar electrodeposition and employing them directly as micromotors. We have demonstrated this by using the catalytic and magnetic properties of Janus objects. The second strategy is utilizing bipolar electrochemistry as a direct trigger of motion of isotropic particles. We developed mechanisms based on a simultaneous dissolution and deposition, or on a localized asymmetric production of bubbles. We then used these for the translation, the rotation and the levitation of conducting objects. These examples give insight into two interesting fields of applications of the concept of bipolar electrochemistry, and open perspectives for future developments in materials science and for generating motion at different scales.


AccChemRes2013 p2513 TOC


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Chen K., Adam C., Sojic N., Schmittel M.,RSC Adv. 2013, 33, 24140–24145. For remote Hg2+ detection, an array of nanotips was covalently functionalised using a versatile photochemical approach.... Read More...
Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Soft Microgels: Influence of the Emulsification Process on Particle Interfacial Organization and Emulsion Properties
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Destribats M., Wolfs M., Pinaud F., Lapeyre V., Sellier E., Schmitt V., Ravaine V.,Langmuir 2013, 29, 12367–12374. This work reports a new evidence of the versatility of soft responsive microgels... Read More...
Electrochemical Detection of Single Microbeads Manipulated by Optical Tweezers in the Vicinity of Ultramicroelectrodes
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Suraniti E., Kanoufi F., Gosse C., Zhao X., Dimova R., Pouligny B., Sojic N.,Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 8902–8909. Editors' Highlight ! Latex micrometric beads are manipulated by optical tweezers in the... Read More...
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Yiu H. H. P., Bouffier L., Boldrin P., Long J., Claridge J. B., Rosseinsky M. J.,Langmuir 2013, 29, 11354-11365. Iron (II,III) oxide Fe3O4 nanoparticles (25 and 50 nm NPs) are grafted with amine... Read More...
Capillary Electrophoresis as a Production Tool for Asymmetric Microhybrids
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Fattah Z., Garrigue P., Goudeau B., Lapeyre V., Kuhn A., Bouffier L.,Electrophoresis 2013, 34, 1985-1990. The site selective electrodeposition of silver metal onto a conducting object such as carbon... Read More...
Development of Electrochemical Microsensors for the Monitoring of Mitochondrial Activities
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Bipolar Electrochemistry: From Materials Science to Motion and Beyond
mercredi 29 mai 2013
Loget G., Zigah D., Bouffier L., Sojic N., Kuhn A.Acc. Chem. Res. 2013, 46, 2513-2523. Bipolar electrochemistry, a phenomenon which generates an asymmetric reactivity onthe surface of conductive...
Electrochemiluminescent Polymer Film with suitable Redox “turn-off” Absorbance window for Remote Selective Sensing of Hg2+
jeudi 16 mai 2013
Shu Q., Adam C., Sojic N., Schmittel M.,Analyst 2013, 138, 4500-4504. An electrochemiluminescent sensing scheme is presented for remote detection of Hg2+ through an ITO-coated nanostructured optical... Read More...
Photochemical Crosslinking of Hyaluronic Acid confined in Nanoemulsions: towards Nanogels with a Controlled Structure
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Messager L., Portecop N., Hachet E., Lapeyre V., Pignot-Paintrand I., Catargi B., Auzély-Velty R., Ravaine V.,J. Mater. Chem. B 2013, 1, 3369-3379. We present the preparation of nanogels made of... Read More...
Monitoring Metabolic Responses of Single Mitochondria within PDMS Wells: Study of their Endogenous NADH Evolution
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Suraniti E., Vajrala S. R., Goudeau B., Bottari S., Rigoulet M., Devin A., Sojic N., Arbault S.,Anal. Chem. 2013, 85, 5146-5152. It is now demonstrated that mitochondria individually function... Read More...
Functionalization of Optical Nanotip Arrays with an Electrochemical Microcantilever for Multiplexed DNA Detection
vendredi 12 avril 2013
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Enhanced Electrogenerated Chemiluminescence in Thermo-Responsive Microgels
vendredi 29 mars 2013
Pinaud F., Russo L., Pinet S., Gosse I., Ravaine V., Sojic N.,J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 5517-5520. The electrochemistry, photoluminescence and electrogenerated chemiluminescence of... Read More...
Chemiluminescence from Asymmetric Inorganic Surface Layers generated by Bipolar Electrochemistry
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lundi 4 février 2013
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Wireless Electrografting of Molecular Layers for Janus Particle Synthesis
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